Happy to share my inputs in an article in the #MumbaiMirror and also sharing the content which didn't make it to the article due to space constraints.
Advantages of uphill / stair climbing:
1) Recruits those muscles of the thighs, calves and gluteus which are otherwise not activated during surface walking.
2) Since you are moving vertically the intensity of the routine is a lot more challenging and therefore you will end up achieving greater cardio vascular benefits.
3) While running can place a lot of stress on the joints and therefore may not be a option for many with medical challenges walking uphill will result in a similar intensity without the impact
4) For those who have time constraints the activity will be of advantage as due to its high intensity a shorter routine will give the same benefits.
5) Since the activities are out is the normal comfort zone the body automatically activates its core muscles and stabilisers which are an extremely important group of muscles.
Advantages of walking/ running on sand & wet vs dry sand :
1) Recruits the joints and muscles of your lower legs such as you calves , ankles and knees and hence a great form of exercise to challenge those areas.
2) Walking on soft sand is difficult and the body has to expend more energy for a lesser distance covered. 3)Running on dry sand is not recommended as the unevenness of the surface and the constant digs in the soft sand can cause injury to the joints and falls.
4) Running on wet sand is less impact on the joints than concrete roads due to the give of the sand which creates less impact on the joints.
5) Greater calories are burned in sand running as against running on roads due to the uneven surface and the constant give of the sand.